Fernanda Cristina Petersen

Image of Fernanda Cristina Petersen
Norwegian version of this page
Phone +47 22840312
Mobile phone +47 91186028
Username
Visiting address Domus Odontologica RH Building A1 floor M Sognsvannsveien 10 0372 Oslo
Postal address Postboks 1052 Blindern 0316 OSLO

Academic Interests

Molecular microbiology, streptococcal genetics and competence, bacterial signaling, regulatory pathways, commensal and pathogenic relationships, biofilms.

Teaching

Higher education and employment history

dr odont, University of Oslo, 2002; Master education, University of Oslo, 1995; Specialist in prosthodontics, Rio de Janeiro State University, 1990; DDS, Rio de Janeiro State University, 1988.

Honoraria

  • NOF division Hatton Award, 2000
  • IADR International Hatton Award, 2001
  • NOF division Hatton Award, 2003
  • Unilever travel Awards, 2004
  • Tidende, best review article in 2005-2007, 2007

Appointments

  • Associate professor, University of Oslo, 2007
  • Researcher/lecturer, University of Oslo, 2006
  • Post-doctoral research fellow, University of Oslo, 2002
  • PhD fellow (dr. odont), University of Oslo, 1997

Cooperation

Member of the Biofilm and signaling group, University of Oslo
Farmaceutical Institute, University of Oslo
Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, USA
Forsyth Institute, USA
Department of Oral Biology (Cell biology and microbiology groups), University of Oslo
Member of the Center for biofilm research www.biofilmforskning.no 
 

Project

Research and education in biofilm and antibiotic

 

Tags: microbiology, streptococci, genetic competence, signalling, biofilm, commensals, pathogens

Publications

  • Ercoli, Jimstan; Ercoli, Giuseppe; Pollard, Tracey; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Camberlein, Emilie; Szylar, Gabriella; Hyams, Catherine; Tomlinson, Gillian; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Andres Floto, R; Noursadeghi, Mahdad & Browna, Jeremy S (2019). Relative contributions of extracellular and internalized bacteria to early macrophage proinflammatory responses to streptococcus pneumoniae. mBio.  ISSN 2161-2129.  10(5) . doi: 10.1128/mBio.02144-19
  • Filho, Antonio Pedro Ricomini; Khan, Rabia; Åmdal, Heidi Aarø & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Conserved Pheromone Production, Response and Degradation by Streptococcus mutans. Frontiers in Microbiology.  ISSN 1664-302X.  10 . doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02140 Full text in Research Archive. Show summary
  • Geissler, Sebastian; Gomez-Florit, Manuel; Wiedmer, David; Barrantes Bautista, Alejandro; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Tiainen, Hanna (2019). In vitro performance of bioinspired phenolic nanocoatings for endosseous implant applications. ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering.  ISSN 2373-9878.  5(7), s 3340- 3351 . doi: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00566 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Junges, Roger; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Morrison, Donald A. & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19F Strain EF3030. Microbiology Resource Announcements (MRA).  ISSN 2169-8287.  8(19), s 1- 3 . doi: 10.1128/MRA.00198-19
  • Junges, Roger; Salvadori, Gabriela; Chen, Tsute; Morrison, Donald A. & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Hidden Gems in the Transcriptome Maps of Competent Streptococci. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences.  ISSN 2296-889X.  5, s 1- 7 . doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2018.00116 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Junges, Roger; Sturød, Kjersti; Salvadori, Gabriela; Åmdal, Heidi Aarø; Chen, Tsute & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Characterization of a Signaling System in Streptococcus mitis That Mediates Interspecies Communication with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  ISSN 0099-2240.  85(2) . doi: 10.1128/AEM.02297-18
  • Khan, Rabia; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Shekhar, Sudhanshu (2019). Commensal bacteria: An emerging player in defense against respiratory pathogens. Frontiers in Immunology.  ISSN 1664-3224.  10:1203(MAY), s 1- 9 . doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01203 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Morrison, Donald A. & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Close Commensal Relatives: Mechanisms and Implications. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.  ISSN 2235-2988.  9:94, s 1- 8 . doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00094 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Khan, Rabia; Khan, Ata Ul Razzaq & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Mouse IgG2a Antibodies Specific for the Commensal Streptococcus mitis Show Stronger Cross-Reactivity with Streptococcus pneumoniae than IgG1 Antibodies. Journal of Immunology Research.  ISSN 2314-8861.  2019 . doi: 10.1155/2019/7906724 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Khan, Rabia; Schenck, Karl & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Intranasal Immunization with the Commensal Streptococcus mitis Confers Protective Immunity against Pneumococcal Lung Infection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  ISSN 0099-2240.  85(6) . doi: 10.1128/AEM.02235-18
  • Sturød, Kjersti; Dhariwal, Achal; Dahle, Ulf R; Vestrheim, Didrik Frimann & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Impact of narrow-spectrum penicillin V on the oral and faecal resistome in a young child treated for otitis media. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance.  ISSN 2213-7165.  20, s 290- 297 . doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2019.08.004 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Lauren A., Cowley; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Junges, Roger; Jimenez, M; Morrison, Donald A. & Hanage, WP (2018). Evolution via recombination: Cell-to-cell contact facilitates larger recombination events in Streptococcus pneumoniae. PLoS Genetics.  ISSN 1553-7390.  14(6) . doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007410 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Reglinski, Mark; Ercoli, Giuseppe; Plumptre, Charlie; Kay, Emily; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Paton, James C; Wren, Brendan W. & Brown, Jeremy (2018). A recombinant conjugated pneumococcal vaccine that protects against murine infections with a similar efficacy to Prevnar-13. npj Vaccines.  ISSN 2059-0105.  3, s 1- 11 . doi: 10.1038/s41541-018-0090-4 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Åmdal, Heidi Aarø; Chen, T.; Morrison, D.A. & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). High-resolution profiles of the Streptococcus mitis CSP signaling pathway reveal core and strain-specific regulated genes. BMC Genomics.  ISSN 1471-2164.  19(1) . doi: 10.1186/s12864-018-4802-y Full text in Research Archive.
  • Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Khan, Rabia; Ferreira, Daniela M.; Mitsi, Elena; German, Esther; Rørvik, Gro Herredsvela; Berild, Dag; Schenck, Karl; Kwon, Keehwan & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Antibodies reactive to commensal Streptococcus mitis show cross-reactivity with virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. Frontiers in Immunology.  ISSN 1664-3224.  9:747, s 1- 10 . doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00747 Full text in Research Archive. Show summary
  • Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Schenck, Karl & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Exploring Host–Commensal Interactions in the Respiratory Tract. Frontiers in Immunology.  ISSN 1664-3224.  8, s 1- 7 . doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01971 Full text in Research Archive. Show summary
  • Sturød, Kjersti; Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Antibiotics alter the window of competence for natural transformation in streptococci. Molecular Oral Microbiology.  ISSN 2041-1006.  33(5), s 378- 387 . doi: 10.1111/omi.12240
  • Wiedmer, David; Cui, Chen; Weber, Florian; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Tiainen, Hanna (2018). Antibacterial Surface Coating for Bone Scaffolds Based on the Dark Catalytic Effect of Titanium Dioxide. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.  ISSN 1944-8244.  10(42), s 35784- 35793 . doi: 10.1021/acsami.8b12623 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Engen, Stian André; Schreurs, Olaf Joseph Franciscus; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Blix, Inger Johanne S.; Bækkevold, Espen Sønderaal & Schenck, Karl (2017). The Regulatory Role of the Oral Commensal Streptococcus mitis on Human Monocytes. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.  ISSN 0300-9475.  87(2), s 80- 87 . doi: 10.1111/sji.12636
  • Junges, Roger; Khan, Rabia; Tovpeko, Yanina; Åmdal, Heidi Aarø; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Morrison, Donald (2017). Markerless genome editing in competent streptococci. Methods in molecular biology.  ISSN 1064-3745.  1537, s 233- 247 . doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6685-1_14 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Junges, Roger; Salvadori, Gabriela; Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Åmdal, Heidi Aarø; Periselneris, Jimstan; Chen, Tsute; Brown, Jeremy S. & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2017). A quorum-sensing system that regulates Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and surface polysaccharide production. mSphere.  ISSN 2379-5042.  2(5), s 1- 18 . doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00324-17 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Khan, Rabia; Junges, Roger; Åmdal, Heidi Aarø; Chen, Tsute; Morrison, Donald A & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2017). A positive feedback loop mediated by Sigma X enhances expression of the streptococcal regulator ComR. Scientific Reports.  ISSN 2045-2322.  7(1) . doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-04768-5 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Rukke, Håkon Valen; Scheie, Anne Aamdal & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2017). Oral mikroflora - et reservoar av antibiotikaresistensgener. Aktuell Nordisk odontologi.  ISSN 1902-3545.  s 43- 59 . doi: 10.18261 Show summary
  • Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Khan, Rabia; Åmdal, Heidi Aarø; Morrison, Donald A. & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2017). Natural transformation of oral streptococci by use of synthetic pheromones. Methods in molecular biology.  ISSN 1064-3745.  s 219- 232 . doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6685-1_13 Full text in Research Archive.

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  • Bergersen, Linda Hildegard; Bjorvand Bjørkøy, Aasta Marie; Fei Fang, Evandro; Gjelsvik, Olav; Hystad Hove, Lene; Liaaen Jensen, Janicke; Markussen, Simen; Melberg, Hans Olav; Loge Nilsen, Hilde; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Pettersen, Tove & Storm-Mathisen, Jon (2020). Vi må kunne tenke nytt om alderdom.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2020). Metagenomic approaches for analysis of AMR in microbiomes.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2020). Towards epi-omic approaches in the study of microbiomes.
  • Rajar, Polona & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2020). Born in the twilight of antibiotics: Implications of antibiotic use to the preterm infant respiratory microbiome and resistome development.
  • Baker, Jonathon & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Exploiting the oral microbiome to prevent tooth decay: has evolution already provided the best tools?.
  • Baker, Jonathon & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Klebsiella and Providencia emerge as lone survivors following long-term starvation of oral microbiota. Show summary
  • Barbara, E Costa-Oliveira & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). New insights on Intracellular polysaccharides in Streptococcus mutans. Show summary
  • Campos Vieira, Juliana & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Cariogenicity of lactose in a Streptococcus mutans biofilm exposed to sucrose. Show summary
  • Casarin, Renato & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). From colonization to biofilm behavior: a look on severe periodontitis affecting young population.
  • Chen, Tsute & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). The Human Oral Microbiome Database: now extended to comprise the aerodigestive tract.
  • Dhariwal, Achal & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Visual exploration and network-based analysis of resistome data.
  • Federle, Michael & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Identifying and exploiting bacterial communication networks to manipulate bacterial pathogens.
  • Herredsvela Rørvik, Gro & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). C-di-AMP signaling in the oral commensal Streptococcus mitis. Show summary
  • Hu, Duoyi & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Strategies for unveiling upstream regulators controlling Streptococcus pneumoniae quorum-sensing. Show summary
  • Junges, Roger; Salvadori, Gabriela; Chen, Tsute & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Identification of a ComRS-like regulator system in the mitis group of streptococci.
  • Laczkovich, Irina & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Identification of unannotated pheromone genes by ribosome profiling. Show summary
  • Lam, Trinh & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Droplet Confinement of Streptococcus pneumoniae for Studies of Bacterial Genetic Transformation. Show summary
  • Libardi Pagotto, Leonardo & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans competence by chlorhexidine gluconate. Show summary
  • Martorano Fernandes, Loyse & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). The role of adhesins of Candida albicans in virulence and pathogenicity of duo-species biofilms with Streptococcus mutans. Show summary
  • Melo Leite Filho, Ademir & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Cariogenic potential of a duo-species biofilm of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus fermentum exposed to lactose. Show summary
  • Morais Dornelas Figueira, Louise & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Streptococcus mitis regulation and genomic sequencing during interaction with Candida albicans. Show summary
  • Morrison, Donald & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). The oral microbiome: a work in progress.
  • Pagotto, LL; Junges, Roger; Salvadori, Gabriela; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Ricomoni Filho, Antonio Pedro (2019). Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans competence by chlorhexidine gluconate.
  • Pandey, Sushma; Follin-Arbelet, Benoit; Pun, Chin Babadur; Gautam, Dej K.; Johannessen, Anne C.; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Costea, Daniela Elena & Sapkota, Dipak (2019). Helicobacter pylori is not present in oral squamous cell carcinomas from cohorts of Norwegian and Nepalese patients.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Aging in the twilight of antibiotics.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Mikrobiom og antibiotikaresistens.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). No time to wait: living in the twilight of antibiotics.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). No time to wait: oral research in the twilight of antibiotics.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Resistance after long term antibiotic treatment.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Symposium and RESISPART partnership: Norway - Brazil - USA.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Kolstad, Hilde Zwaig (ed.) (2019). - Har aldri sett så mye snø!.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Kolstad, Hilde Zwaig (red.) (2019). Gratulerer til Roger Junges som i dag mottok Den norske tannlegeforening sin pris for undervisning og forskning!.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & størseth, inger (ed.) (2019). Resistance after long-term antibiotic treatment.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & størseth, inger (red.) (2019). Utvekslingsopphold i Brasil.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Torheim, Norunn Kristin & Vistnes, Torunn (red.) (2019). Lysvandring i Botanisk hage: Kommunikasjon mellom bakterier.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Torwick, Anna (ed.) (2019). Born in the twilight of antibiotics.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Torwick, Anna (ed.) (2019). Enhancing world-class research and education in biofilm and antibiotic resistance by strengthening cooperation between Norway-Brazil-USA.
  • Ricomini, Pedro & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Biofilms: a challenging target.
  • Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Mouthwashes: resistance against oral anti-septics: myth and reality.
  • Rued, Britta & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Quorum sensing regulates expression of a post-translationally modified peptide in Streptococcus mutans.. Show summary
  • Salvadori, Gabriela & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Functional Metagenomics: A Tool to Study Antimicrobial Resistance in Saliva.
  • Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Khan, Rabia; Schenck, Karl & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Intranasal immunization with the oral commensal Streptococcus mitis induces protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.
  • Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Yang, Xi (2019). Editorial: Understanding and Exploiting Host-Commensal Interactions to Combat Pathogens. Frontiers in Immunology.  ISSN 1664-3224. . doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02645
  • Tabchoury, Cinthia; Ricomini, Pedro & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2019). Welcome to RESISPART symposium.
  • Dhariwal, Achal & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Network-based analysis of Resistome data.
  • Junges, Roger & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Eavesdropping on bacterial conversations: what are they doing and do they understand each other?.
  • Junges, Roger & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Interspecies cell-to-cell communication in the mitis group of streptococci.
  • Junges, Roger & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Rgg/SHP cross-communication in the mitis group of streptococci.
  • Junges, Roger; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Egija, Zaura; Lemos, José A. & Merritt, Justin (2018). Environmental and antibiotic stress on oral bacteria: a target for new therapies.
  • Junges, Roger; Sturød, Kjersti; Salvadori, Gabriela; Åmdal, Heidi Aarø; Chen, Tsute & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Interspecies activation of a virulent pathway by an oral commensal.
  • Morrison, Donald A.; Jimenez, Med; Cowley, Lauren A.; Junges, Roger; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Hanage, William P. (2018). Genomic signature of natural genetic transformation shared by S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Antibiotic stress and bacterial cell-to-cell communication.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Born in the Twilight of Antibiotics.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018, 01. april). Fikk Thon-penger. [Fagblad].  Den Norske Tannlegeforenings Tidende.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018, 08. februar). Life Science: Antibiotikaresistens.  Aftenposten.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Massive Open Online Courses and antimicrobial resistance.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Projects by the Oslo Group: an overview.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). RESISPART- Inaugural Remarks.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Streptococcal life.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). The INDNOR project.
  • Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). The Oslo group: expertise and tools.
  • Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Åmdal, Heidi Aarø; Chen, Tsute; Morrison, Donald A & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Insights into regulatory pathways of competence development in Streptococcus mitis type strain and SK321.
  • Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Åmdal, Heidi Aarø; Chen, Tsute; Morrison, Donald A & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Molecular Characterization of Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mitis.
  • Sturød, Kjersti; Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Antibiotic Induced Streptococcal Competence Not Always Correlate with Transformability.
  • Tiainen, Hanna; Wiedmer, David & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Biofilm formation and planktonic growth of S. epidermidis in the presence of phenolic compounds tannic acid and pyrogallol.
  • Wiedmer, David; Cui, Chen; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Tiainen, Hanna (2018). Antibacterial sol-gel coating for bone scaffolds based on the dark catalytic effect of titanium dioxide.
  • Cowley, Lauren A.; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Junges, Roger; Hanage, William P & Morrison, Donald A. (2017). Co-culture of S. pneumoniae strains fosters large recombination events.
  • Cowley, Lauren A.; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Junges, Roger; Hanage, William P & Morrison, Donald A. (2017). Large recombination events readily occurring in biofilm cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  • Engen, Stian; Schreurs, Olaf Joseph Franciscus; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Blix, Inger Johanne S.; Bækkevold, Espen Sønderaal & Schenck, Karl (2017). Regulation of human monocytes by the oral commensal Streptococcus mitis: a role for PGE2?.
  • Gomez-Florit, Manuel; Geissler, Sebastian; Wiedmer, David; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Tiainen, Hanna (2017). Multifunctional polyphenol nanocoatings for improved tissue integration of dental implants.
  • Junges, Roger; Salvadori, Gabriela; Chen, Tsute; Åmdal, Heidi A.; Jimstan N., Periselneris; Jeremy S., Brown & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2017). A bacterial pheromone system regulates biofilm formation and colonization..
  • Junges, Roger; Salvadori, Gabriela; Sudhanshu, Shekhar; Åmdal, Heidi A.; Jimstan N., Periselneris; Chen, Tsute; Jeremy S., Brown & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2017). An Rgg/SHP quorum sensing system reduces virulence and fitness in Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  • Rørvik, Gro Herredsvela; Schreurs, Olaf Joseph Franciscus; Engen, Stian; Blix, Inger Johanne S.; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina & Schenck, Karl (2017). Antibody reactivity to the oral commensal Streptococcus mitis in serum and saliva.
  • Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2017). A Competence-Induced Bacteriocin Reduces Growth of Oral Pathogenic Bacteria.
  • Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Chen, Tsute & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2017). A Competence-Induced Bacteriocin Reduces Growth of Oral Pathogenic Bacteria..
  • Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Morrison, Donald A. & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2017). High efficiency genetic transformation in encapsulated pneumococcus.

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Published Nov. 9, 2010 12:28 PM - Last modified Apr. 22, 2020 9:39 AM