To nye artikler fra Roger Simm
Roger Simm har publisert to atrikler - "Benzyl alcohol induces a reversible fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and inhibits membrane trafficking between endosomes and the trans-Golgi network." i Experimental Cell Research, og "The putative drug efflux systems of the Bacillus cereus Group" i Plos One.
Benzyl alcohol induces a reversible fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and inhibits membrane trafficking between endosomes and the trans-Golgi network
Benzyl alcohol (BnOH) is widely used as a component of foods, cosmetics, household products and medical products. It is generally considered to be safe for human use, however, it has been connected to a number of adverse effects, including hypersensitivity reactions and neonatal deaths. BnOH is a membrane fluidizing agent that can affect membrane protein activity and cellular processes such as ligand binding to cell surface receptors, endocytosis and degradation of lysosomal cargo. In this study, we examined the effects of BnOH on intracellular transport using Shiga toxin (Stx), diphtheria toxin (DT) and ricin. BnOH caused reduced toxicity of all three toxins at BnOH concentrations that cause membrane fluidization. The reduced toxicity of Stx and ricin was mainly due to inhibition of retrograde transport between endosomes and the trans-Golgi network as BnOH had small effects on cell association and endocytosis of ricin and Stx. Strikingly, BnOH also induced a reversible fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus.
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The putative drug efflux systems of the Bacillus cereus group
The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria includes seven closely related species, three of which, B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, are pathogens of humans, animals and/or insects. Preliminary investigations into the transport capabilities of different bacterial lineages suggested that genes encoding putative efflux systems were unusually abundant in the B. cereus group compared to other bacteria. To explore the drug efflux potential of the B. cereus group all putative efflux systems were identified in the genomes of prototypical strains of B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis using our Transporter Automated Annotation Pipeline. More than 90 putative drug efflux systems were found within each of these strains, accounting for up to 2.7% of their protein coding potential. Comparative analyses demonstrated that the efflux systems are highly conserved between these species; 70-80% of the putative efflux pumps were shared between all three strains studied. Furthermore, 82% of the putative efflux system proteins encoded by the prototypical B. cereus strain ATCC 14579 (type strain) were found to be conserved in at least 80% of 169 B. cereus group strains that have high quality genome sequences available. However, only a handful of these efflux pumps have been functionally characterized. Deletion of individual efflux pump genes from B. cereus typically had little impact to drug resistance phenotypes or the general fitness of the strains, possibly because of the large numbers of alternative efflux systems that may have overlapping substrate specificities. Therefore, to gain insight into the possible transport functions of efflux systems in B. cereus, we undertook large-scale qRT-PCR analyses of efflux pump gene expression following drug shocks and other stress treatments. Clustering of gene expression changes identified several groups of similarly regulated systems that may have overlapping drug resistance functions. In this article we review current knowledge of the small molecule efflux pumps encoded by the B. cereus group and suggest the likely functions of numerous uncharacterised pumps.
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